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Pruning your Fruit Trees

Organics Admin
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Organics Admin

COO at Aladay LLC
Organic Farmer, Property Preservation Specialist and Custom Glass & Wood Worker. Blogger extraordinaire...
Organics Admin
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Yes That time of year again….

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Apple Spur

 

With the East Coast and Mid-West still in the throes of winter. Out here on the West coast Spring is barreling its way towards us at a break neck pace. I thought I’d bring you information for the proper pruning of fruit trees and for that matter since spring is upon us and many Preservation companies like ours offer Spring Clean Up Services to the public. So the proper techniques and methods of pruning and trimming are important to the health of the tree and shrubs that you will be pruning and trimming.

The trimming and pruning of trees can be an excellent additional service to offer outside the confines of the Property Preservation Industry,(PPI). This is a service we have offered and provided clients long before we ever got involved in the PPI. We bill $25 per branch, yes that can add up very fast. So when you’re offering a service it is important to understand and have the proper knowledge and tools for the job. Tools we use are Pole saws, Anvil Pruners, Looping Shears, By-Pass Shears, and Bow Saws, and of course where necessary Chain Saws.

Fruit tree pruning is the cutting and removing of parts of a fruit tree. It covers a number of horticultural techniques that control growth, remove dead or diseased wood, and stimulate the formation of flowers and fruit buds. Pruning often means cutting branches back, sometimes removing smaller limbs entirely. It may also mean removal of young shoots, buds, leaves, etc. Careful attention to pruning and training young trees affects their later productivity and longevity. Good pruning and training can also prevent later injury from weak crotches (where a tree trunk splits into two or more branches) that break from the weight of fruit, snow, or ice on the branches.

To obtain a better understanding of how to prune plants properly, it is useful to have some underlying knowledge of how pruning works, and how it affects the way plants grow.

Plants form new tissue in an area called the meristem, located near the tips of roots and shoots, where active cell division takes place. Meristem growth is aimed at ensuring that leaves are quickly elevated into sunlight, and that roots are able to penetrate deeply into the soil. Once adequate height and length is achieved by the stems and roots, they begin to thicken to support the plant. On the shoots, these growing tips of the plant are called apical buds. The apical meristem (or tip) produces the growth hormone auxin, which not only promotes cell division, but also diffuses downwards and inhibits the development of lateral bud growth that otherwise competes with the apical tip for light and nutrients. Removing the apical tip and its suppressive hormone lets lower, dormant lateral buds develop, and the buds between the leaf stalk and stem produce new shoots that compete to become lead growth.

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Manipulating this natural response to damage (known as the principle of apical dominance) by processes such as pruning (as well as coppicing and pollarding) allows the arborist to determine the shape, size and productivity of many fruiting trees and bushes. The main aim when pruning fruit trees is usually to maximize fruit yield. Unpruned trees tend to produce large numbers of small fruits that may be difficult to reach when harvesting by hand. Branches can become broken by the weight of the crop, and the cropping may become biennial (that is, bearing fruit only every other year). Overpruned trees on the other hand tend to produce light crops of large, flavourless fruit that does not store well. Careful pruning balances shoot growth and fruit production.

Remember Proper Pruning is for the health of the trees not just the aesthetic value this services has.

  • Proper pruning is an important step in ensuring healthy, strong fruit trees.
  • Train fruit trees while young to avoid problems later.
  • Improperly pruned or neglected trees are more subject to disease organisms and breakage from fruit loads and storms.
  • Prune in late winter or early spring just before bud break.
  • Wound dressings are of no benefit in pruning and can even harbor disease organisms.

Proper training through correct pruning is important for a healthy, strong fruit tree. If a tree is properly trained from a young plant, it needs only moderate annual pruning when it reaches bearing age.

Young trees that are neglected will require removal of large branches later. This opens the tree to infectious disease organisms. Neglected trees also suffer more damage from fruit load and storm breakage than properly trained trees.

Pruning is best done in late winter or early spring just before bud break. Occasional summer and fall pruning may be needed, but keep it to a minimum. Avoid pruning in late spring and early summer when disease organisms have the best chance of invading pruning wounds.

Training and Pruning Fruit Trees

Quick Facts…

  • Proper pruning is an important step in ensuring healthy, strong fruit trees.
  • Train fruit trees while young to avoid problems later.
  • Improperly pruned or neglected trees are more subject to disease organisms and breakage from fruit loads and storms.
  • Prune in late winter or early spring just before bud break.
  • Wound dressings are of no benefit in pruning and can even harbor disease organisms.

Proper training through correct pruning is important for a healthy, strong fruit tree. If a tree is properly trained from a young plant, it needs only moderate annual pruning when it reaches bearing age.

Young trees that are neglected will require removal of large branches later. This opens the tree to infectious disease organisms. Neglected trees also suffer more damage from fruit load and storm breakage than properly trained trees.

Pruning is best done in late winter or early spring just before bud break. Occasional summer and fall pruning may be needed, but keep it to a minimum. Avoid pruning in late spring and early summer when disease organisms have the best chance of invading pruning wounds.

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Training a Young Tree

Fruit trees often are obtained as bare-root whips or as packaged and container-grown sizes. Bare-root whips may have few or no branches. Following planting, remove the top of the whip about 1/4 inch above a bud that is located approximately 30 to 36 inches above the soil line (see Figure 1). This will cause branching.

If branches are already present, as is usually the case with container-grown trees, remove only dead, broken or interfering branches until the tree is established. Avoid the temptation to limb the tree up right after planting. It is important to leave as much healthy growth as possible the first year to provide foliage for food production. This is needed for root establishment.

In the second year, select the branches that are well-spaced up and down the plant and leave these. Remove all other branches, particularly when they interfere with each other, arise from the trunk close to the same point, or have acute, upright crotches. These last tend to develop “included bark” as the tree grows. Such branches will be weak and fail under heavy fruit loads or snows.

In subsequent years, select additional strong branches and remove weak and interfering ones. It also may be necessary to remove some lower branches that were left earlier.

When removing any branch, large or small, avoid stubs and cuts close to the trunk. As a guideline, look for a bark ridge located in the branch crotch. You also will find that most branches have a slight swelling or “collar” at their base. Avoid cutting into this because that will destroy a natural protection or boundary in the tree.

If at all possible, avoid cutting back tops (except in the young whips). This cuts into stems (trunks) and opens the tree to infection.

Pruning Older Trees

Avoid pruning any more than necessary. Some pruning books urge “topping” older trees to stimulate young, productive wood. This practice, however, not only leads to the development of weak shoots, but invariably opens a tree to numerous disease and wood-rotting organisms. Canker diseases such as Cytospora, common in peaches, and bacterial diseases, such as fire blight in apple and pear, are perpetuated through unnecessary and improper pruning.

Occasional thinning of branches (never the tops or branch tips) may be necessary. Undercut large branches to prevent bark-stripping when the branch falls. Then remove most of the branch weight with a cut outside of the undercut.

Wound Dressings

It is tempting to apply a wound dressing to a pruning cut. This age-old practice, however, has been shown by several research scientists to be of no benefit to the tree and can even harbor disease organisms.

Wound dressings are sometimes desirable for aesthetics, to hide or camouflage the exposed wound. If this is the case, use the type of material in aerosol cans available at garden centers. Apply a thin coat. It should barely coat the wound, changing its color but not forming a thick, black film.

Foregoing information authored by: J.R. Feucht and H. Larsen (9/09) J.R. Feucht, former Colorado State University Extension landscape plants specialist and professor, horticulture. 9/99.

For more information on our Spring Clean Up Service please go here

Sources: Colorado State University Extension & Wikipedia

Photos Courtesy Wikipedia and Google Images.

Written By: Aaron Aveiro and noted authors.

Business 101….Stolen Data and Passwords???

Organics Admin
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Organics Admin

COO at Aladay LLC
Organic Farmer, Property Preservation Specialist and Custom Glass & Wood Worker. Blogger extraordinaire...
Organics Admin
Follow Me!!

Latest posts by Organics Admin (see all)

5 Ways Passwords & Other Data Can Be Stolen From Right Under Your Nose

Contact us today for your consultation.
Contact us today for your consultation.

 

 

This week we have a White Paper authored by Christian Cawley Via a web site we subscribe to Make Use Of.  MakeUseOf is a leading destination for digital productivity tips and your guide to cool stuff on the Internet. With staff located around the world they have been bringing valuable information to small and large business since 2006.

 

By Christian Cawley

Now you see what’s happened, don’t you? I make plans, and then I can’t fulfil them thanks to the various demands of life, finding crap websites to read and other distractions.

In truth, of course, I’ve been decorating a nursery as well as working very hard to make sure things are comfortable when the babies come.

That was the plan, at least. As it turns out, thanks to the way I work and the Google “panda bomb” it isn’t really going to work out that way. Rather, any extra work I do will only improve existing content on Bright Hub which will benefit me later on, rather than straight away.

Luckily, other projects are on the horizon with at least Project: KMag soon demanding my direct attention. In fact next week I need to take a day out of writing to attend to other projects and planning.

Such days always fell like a risk as I regularly feel uncomfortable if I’m not doing something that is generating income in real time…

Read the original article here:
Your password is you. It’s the key to your life. Whether it unlocks your email account, your computer or your smartphone, the password is vital to your online persona, the usernames, website accounts, perhaps banking and credit cards, cloud storage, and even gaming accounts. If you lose your password to criminals, your entire existence can potentially be rewritten. At best, you can expect to find some mischief conducted on a Twitter or Facebook account, but at worst… well, the risk of identity theft is something that we’ve explained previously, and the warning signs can be
spotted if you know what you’re looking for. You’ll be surprised, perhaps even horrified, at just how easily your password and other data can be
stolen.

1. You’re Using A Rubbish Password

Passwords are tough to get right. It’s easy enough to think of one; but if it’s easy for you then there is a good chance that it is easy for someone else too – especially if they know enough about you. Even if they don’t, tools exist that can make the task of guessing a password simple by using the
“brute force” approach of generating hundreds, even thousands, of passwords a minute to find the right combination. While no password can be 100% secure, we can at least ensure that our secret codes remain difficult to guess by employing techniques to create a secure password that you can remember.

2. Hardware Devices Are Sniffing Out Your Keystrokes

How secure your data and passwords remain, however, depend upon the determination of the person attempting to hack you. If they really want your data, they’ll probably get it. One method is by using keyloggers, software or hardware tools that can be connected to a computer or placed nearby that will detect every keystroke, each letter, number or character that you type. As long as you have a good anti-virus/anti-malware solution installed on your computer, a software keylogger should be detected and removed without any trouble. Traditionally, hardware keyloggers were placed between the keyboard connector and the socket on the back of your PC (AT/XT, PS/2 or USB), out of sight. These days, however, the threat comes from a
completely new source, sniffers that detect keystrokes sent wirelessly. Such an example is this USB charger that detects keystokes transmitted from keyboard to PC wirelessly from Microsoftmanufactured keyboards, called KeySweeper. Designed to exploit a weakness in Microsoft’s wireless keyboards, it is actually a surprise it has taken so long for anyone to exploit the vulnerability commercially – it’s been known about for quite a while.
Protecting against the KeySweepter is simple. Buy a new, non-Microsoft keyboard – preferably Bluetooth.

3. You Give Your Password Away Voluntarily

Perhaps the most frightening way in which your data can be stolen is when you share your password voluntarily, having been fooled by a supposedly trustworthy website or email. Phishing is the name of the technique used to part you from your personal information, passwords, name, date of birth, etc., and it is a popular tool for scammers. Over the years they have refined their craft. Changes in technology don’t necessarily mean things are more secure – for phishers, they just need to become more sophisticated, using modern, refined methods to get results. Not only should you be on the lookout for suspicious emails, however, you should also be aware that Android apps can be used to steal your passwords.

4. Your Phone Is Leaking Personal Data Everywhere You Go

While the 1s and 0s aren’t exactly spilling out of your USB port, there is a strong chance that the presence of NFC on your phone can enable hackers to upload malware from their own devices. Nearfield communication is inherently insecure, relying on trust between device owners. The problem is
that it can work without the devices touching. Of course, you might find yourself accidentally bumping into people – or them to you – out in the
street. The risk here should be obvious. With malware installed on your phone, the attacker can begin downloading personal information, or install a keylogger and have everything you enter (or even say) uploaded to them. The best way to stop this is to disable NFC, but if you really must have it activated, make sure you’re wearing the right clothes.

5. You Left Your Smartphone, Tablet Or Laptop Unattended

No doubt the most obvious way to stop your data being stolen is to ensure your hardware is kept well away from the thieves. For computers, copying data from a stolen device can be simple even if it is password protected thanks to live Linux distributions that can read the HDD unless it is encrypted.
Along with taking reasonable steps to secure your portables with passwords, we recommend taking steps to protect smartphones from theft, perhaps even employing “uglification” to make a high end device look unattractive.
For desktop computers and other home office equipment, meanwhile, secure your hardware with locks and alarmed cases that will frustrate and deter anyone trying to get hold of your data. Security tools such as the cross-platform Prey can be installed on your hardware to enable tracking in
the event that it is stolen. Should this occur, you can usually protect your data by initiating a remote wipe of the device storage.

However, on Android this doesn’t always help as data recovery tools can be used to find the deleted information, so it is a good idea to make sure your phone storage is encrypted (also applies to iPhone). This may slow things down a little, but this is a small price to pay.

Digital cameras also store personal data – in the form of potentially valuable photos – and while it is tough to track them down, it is possible thanks to the Lenstag security service that uses EXIF metadata to reunite people with their hardware. It’s time to stop giving the scammers an easy ride, and make your data safe. Follow these tips, and keep your digital life in your own hands.

Read more stories like this at MakeUseOf.com
Copyright © 2015, MakeUseOf. All Rights Reserved ®.

The foregoing was is a White Paper from one of the companies we subscribe to. It was authored by Christian Cawley. If you would like to know more…here is some more  information:

Hire Christian Cawley!

You can get in touch on (+44)7983 273050 for an initial chat, or use the contact form below to forward your requirements in more detail.

As a freelance writer, I specialize in topics as varied as consumer electronics, tablets and smartphones, videogames, British TV, blogging, genealogy research and English football.

With 10 years of professional writing experience I am available for short and long-term writing projects both in print and online.

Please note that I am quite selective about the projects I take on, and the clients I will work with. As a result you should contact me only if you are looking for memorable, quality results.

I have experience with the following project types:

  • Sales/promotional copy and press releases.
  • Ghost writing, eBooks and user guides.
  • Character development, plotting and storylining.

Meanwhile, I specialise in several areas and topics of writing:

  • Mobile technology, consumer electronics, Internet and computing, and video games.
  • British television and culture, specifically Doctor Who.
  • Writing comic books, editing and formatting books for publishing in print and electronically.

Please see my portfolio for more information.

I’m also an experienced webmaster and can provide clients with a consultancy service, covering everything from managing an online community to implementing SEO research and building an online store.

I hope this information helps bring light to some of the hazards of having valuable information in electronic and digital form. Remeber this information represents another value to those that wish to relieve you of said information.

Now that many of us have changed the clocks it is time to start promoting Spring Clean Up specials and  start to prepare your yards for summer and “show” time for those Sunday afternoon BBQ’s.

If you’d like more information on this service contact us today.

Until Next Time

Happy Gardening

 

Main article Authored by Christian Cawley… Commentary by Aaron Aveiro

Photograph by Aaron Aveiro, Christian Cawley Photo courtesy his profile

Business 101 is a feature of Aladay LLC Media productions. If you have an article or white paper that would be a good fit for the feature please contact us today.